1G, 2G, 3G and 4G networks: All you need to know
Here, G stands for Generation in wireless networks technology. Moreover, wireless technology means connection between sender and receiver via radio waves or microwaves to maintain communication. However, it uses NICs and routers instead of wires. Telecommunications technology have vastly evolved. Lately, Samsung is claiming a breakthrough 5G.
(NMT, C-Nets, AMPS, TACS) the first analog cellular systems. It refers to first generation introduced in 1980s and completed in early 1990s. It allows a voice calls in one country with the speed up to 2.4 kbps. Its operating frequency was 800 MHz while carrier frequency was 30 KHz. Additionally, it has no internet services. Its advantage is simpler network elements. However, its disadvantages are limited capacity, not secure, poor battery, large phone size and background interference.
(GSM, CDMAOne, D-AMPS) the first digital cellular systems. It refers to second generation launched early 1990s. It allows voice calls, text messages, picture messages and multimedia message with high quality and capacity. Its operating frequency for GSM is 900 MHz and 1800 MHz and for CDMA is 800 MHz. Moreover, the carrier frequency is 200 KHz. Additionally, it has narrowband internet services. Its advantages are multimedia features, internet access and sim introduction. However, its disadvantages are low network range and slow data rates.
2.5G networks: (GPRS, CDMA2000 1x) 2G cellular networks combined with GPRS. The theoretical data rates up to about 144kbit/s. GPRS offered the first always-on data service.
(UMTS FDD and TDD, CDMA2000 1x EVDO, CDMA2000 3x, TD-SCDMA, Arib WCDMA, EDGE, IMT-2000 DECT) cellular networks with speed of 144kbps- 2Mbps. It refers to third generation introduced in 2001. It allows multimedia features and video and voice calls. Its operating frequency is 2100 MHz while carrier frequency is 5 MHz. Additionally, it has broadband internet services. Its advantages are high security and international roaming. However, its disadvantages are high power consumption, high cost of spectrum license, expensive 3G phones and so on. The UN’s International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard requires stationary speeds of 2Mbps and mobile speeds of 384kbps for a “true” 3G.
refers to the fourth generation of mobile phone communication standards. It was started from late 2000s. The LTE and WiMAX are marketed as parts of this generation, even though they fall short of the actual standard.
The ITI has taken ownership of 4G, bundling into a specification known as IMT-Advanced. The document calls for 4G technologies to deliver downlink speeds of 1Gbps when stationary and 100Mbps when mobile, roughly 500-fold and 250-fold increase over IMT-2000 respectively. Unfortunately, those specs are so aggressive that no commercialized standard currently meets them.
Its operating frequency is 850MHz and 1800 MHz while carrier frequency is 15 MHz. Additionally, it has ultra-broadband internet services. Its advantages are speed, high speed handoffs, MIMO technology and global technology. However, its disadvantages are hard to implement and complicated hardware requirement.